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MYTH 2 Radiocarbon dating has established the date of some organic materials e. Some organic materials do give radiocarbon ages in excess of 50, "radiocarbon years. These two measures of time will only be the same if all of the assumptions which go into the conventional radiocarbon dating technique are valid. Comparison of ancient, historically dated artifacts from Egypt, for example with their radiocarbon dates has revealed that radiocarbon years and calendar years are not the same even for the last 5, calendar years.
Since no reliable historically dated artifacts exist which are older than 5, years, it has not been possible to determine the relationship of radiocarbon years to calendar years for objects which yield dates of tens of thousands of radiocarbon years. Thus, it is possible and, given the Flood, probable that materials which give radiocarbon dates of tens of thousands of radiocarbon years could have true ages of many fewer calendar years.
The shells of live freshwater clams have been radiocarbon dated in excess of years old, clearly showing that the radiocarbon dating technique is not valid. The shells of live freshwater clams can, and often do, give anomalous radiocarbon results.
However, the reason for this is understood and the problem is restricted to only a few special cases, of which freshwater clams are the best-known example. It is not correct to state or imply from this evidence that the radiocarbon dating technique is thus shown to be generally invalid.
The problem with freshwater clams arises because these organisms derive the carbon atoms which they use to build their shells from the water in their environment. If this water is in contact with significant quantities of limestone, it will contain many carbon atoms from dissolved limestone.
Since limestone contains very little, if any, radiocarbon, clam shells will contain less radiocarbon than would have been the case if they had gotten their carbon atoms from the air. This gives the clam shell an artificially old radiocarbon age. This problem, known as the " reservoir effect ," is not of very great practical importance for radiocarbon dating since most of the artifacts which are useful for radiocarbon dating purposes and are of interest to archaeology derive from terrestrial organisms which ultimately obtain their carbon atoms from air, not the water.
Samples of coal have been found with radiocarbon ages of only 20, radiocarbon years or less, thus proving the recent origin of fossil fuels, probably in the Flood. I am not aware of any authentic research which supports this claim.
Also, it does not coincide with what creationist scientists would currently anticipate based upon our understanding of the impact of the Flood on radiocarbon.
It is not difficult to see how such a claim could arise, however. There are two characteristics of the instrumental measurement of radiocarbon which, if the lay observer is unaware, could easily lead to such an idea. First, any instrument which is built to measure radiocarbon has a limit beyond which it cannot separate the signal due to radiocarbon in the sample from the signal due to background processes within the measuring apparatus.
Even a hypothetical sample containing absolutely no radiocarbon will register counts in a radiocarbon counter because of background signals within the counter. In the early days of radiocarbon analysis this limit was often around 20, radiocarbon years. Thus, all the researcher was able to say about samples with low levels of radiocarbon was that their age was greater than or equal to 20, radiocarbon years or whatever the sensitivity limit of his apparatus was.
Some may have mistaken this to mean that the sample had been dated to 20, radiocarbon years. The second characteristic of the measurement of radiocarbon is that it is easy to contaminate a sample which contains very little radiocarbon with enough radiocarbon from the research environment to give it an apparent radiocarbon age which is much less than its actual radiocarbon age.
It is not too difficult to supply contaminating radiocarbon since it is present in relatively high concentrations in the air and in the tissues of all living things including any individuals handling the sample. For this reason special precautions need to be exercised when sampling materials which contain only small amounts of radiocarbon.
Reports of young radiocarbon ages for coal probably all stem from a misunderstanding of one or both of these two factors. Measurements made using specially designed, more elaborate apparatus and more astute sampling-handling techniques have yielded radiocarbon ages for anthracite greater than 70, radiocarbon years, the sensitivity limit of this equipment. Continuous series of tree-ring dated wood samples have been obtained for roughly the past 10, years which give the approximate correct radiocarbon age, demonstrating the general validity of the conventional radiocarbon dating technique.
Several long tree-ring chronologies have been constructed specifically for use in calibrating the radiocarbon time scale. By radiocarbon dating a piece of wood which has been dated by counting the annual growth rings of trees back to when that piece of wood grew, a calibration table can be constructed to convert radiocarbon years to true calendar years.
Of course, the table, so constructed, will only give the correct calibration if the tree-ring chronology which was used to construct it had placed each ring in the true calendar year in which it grew. Long tree-ring chronologies are rare there are only two that I am aware of which are of sufficient length to be of interest to radiocarbon and difficult to construct.
They have been slowly built up by matching ring patterns between trees of different ages, both living and dead, from a given locality. Each layer was assigned a name, an age, and an index fossil. The ages were chosen without any scientific reasoning: Now any dating technique that comes along, like carbon dating, has to match the geologic column: This is only because the geologic column has been taught for so long now and is assumed to be true.
Just because something has been taught for a long time does not make it true. However, this is the logic most scientists have. They might have to test a sample 5 or 6 times until they get the age that they want. How would you know any of the dates given are right if you are getting a different one every time?
Fossils are dated by their geological position. And as we mentioned earlier the dates on the geologic column were chosen out of the clear blue sky with no scientific basis. So their entire dating method for dating rocks and fossils is based off of circular reasoning. The atmosphere has very distinctive layers to it. This radioactive carbon 14 is different from regular carbon.
It is produced by radiation striking the atmosphere. In essence, sunlight strikes the atmosphere, slaps the nitrogen around, and turns it into carbon So it all starts by the sunlight striking the atmosphere. About 21 pounds of carbon 14 is produced every year; and that is spread out all over the world. If you look at a periodic table you will notice that Carbon and Nitrogen are right next to each other.
Nitrogen has an atomic weight of 14 and Carbon has an atomic weight of If the sunlight slaps the nitrogen around, like talked about earlier, it will knock a few things off of it and it becomes Carbon It still weighs as much as nitrogen, but it is now considered carbon. It is called radioactive because it is unstable and will eventually break apart. On average half of it will break down every 5, years. While it is Carbon 14 it is floating around in the atmosphere and latches onto oxygen becoming carbon dioxide.
During photosynthesis plants breathe in carbon dioxide and make it part of their tissue. Animals eat plants and make it part of their bodies as well. This is how Carbon 14 gets into the living world. It gets produced in the atmosphere from the sun, the plants breathe it in, and the animals eat the plants. We have all either eaten plants or eaten animals that have eaten plants.
The plants are breathing in this carbon dioxide and some of the carbon is radioactive. If the atmosphere contains. So, you probably have. When a plant or animal dies it stops taking in carbon 14 and whatever it had starts to decay.
It was decaying while it was alive, but now there is nothing coming in to replace it. So what they do is compare the amount of carbon 14 in the fossil to the amount of carbon 14 in the atmosphere. If the fossil only contains half as much carbon 14 as the atmosphere, it is assumed to have been dead for one half-life, or 5, years. While it was alive it should have had. If a fossil only has. In theory the amount of carbon 14 never goes to zero.
However, for practical purposes we cannot measure passed a certain amount. There should be no measurable carbon 14 after about 40, — 50, years. Yet it has proven impossible to find any natural source of carbon below Pleistocene Ice Age strata that does not contain significant amounts of carbon 14, even though such strata are supposed to be millions or billions of years old. These constitute very strong evidence that the earth is only thousands, not billions, of years old.
Now think for a minute of what this means. The textbooks say that coal formed million years ago. However, when coal is tested it still has carbon How is that possible? If all of the carbon 14 atoms would have disappeared at a maximum of , years, why would there still be carbon 14 atoms in coal? Obviously it is not million years old.